They have flown as pilots in every continent of the world except Antarctica, including a trip completely around the world via the length of Russia. John and Martha became the first and only husband and wife to both hold every category and class of FAA pilot and instructor certificates. In September of John and Martha became the first and only couple to both hold every category and class of FAA rating on their pilot and instructor certificates.
Martha is the only woman to achieve this complete ratings sweep. They remain active in many categories, regularly flying everything from jets to piston airplanes and helicopters. They have enjoyed periodically serving as back-up pilots for the Fujifilm blimp. The Kings appear frequently on national TV as aviation experts. John and Martha have been champions for the cause of improving the risk management practices of general aviation pilots and they speak to thousands of pilots each year on aviation safety. They also volunteer their time to speak to college classes on starting a small business.
Go to My Online Courses. Customer Service Toll Free Intl. Technical Support Toll Free Intl. This annual award is presented to "a living individual or group whose vision, leadership, or skill has made a significant and lasting contribution to the promotion and advancement of aviation or space activity. Results for a number of designs are presented and compared. For more information, please contact richard.
Recommended Citation Schwemmer, Joseph R. It is the purpose of this volume to survey the results of these act vities Several gas cells were arrayed longitudinally with the frame. These cells were free to expand and contract, thereby allowing for pressure and.
The advantages of utilizing an airship as an airborne carrier for support and deployment of Unmanned Aircraft Systems UAS are examined. Whether as a stand-alone platform or in concert with conventional aircraft, the airship UAS carrier provides a number of compelling benefits for both military and civilian missions. As a mobile base it can remain operational despite political fallout that may render ground or ocean based UAS sites unavailable.
It offers the psychological impact of a power projection tool that has few geographical limits, and holds promise as a new method for cost-saving intelligence gathering. It is also adaptable for civilian variants for supporting: This paper presents the background on airship-aircraft operations, and explores the general airship carrier concept.
Additionally, a catalog of contemporary technologies available to support the airship carrier concept are discussed, and essential elements for an Air-Station Development program proposed. In his patent, Fuller 46 described a geodesic sphere based on a 20 sided polyhedron called an icosahedron. No rigid airship has been built in the United States since The last non-rigid airship built for the Navy was Technological disciplines, however, have made large advances. Montgolfier brothers successfully achieved flight using a hot - air balloon. While this was not the first time a LTAV had been imagined, it was the Hot - air balloons are able to stay afloat in the atmosphere by displacing a volume of air These possibilities have already been exploited by LTAVs using a lifting gas hydrogen, helium, hot air , but those vehicles require storage for the gas.
Coast Guard inspects bridges, issues permits to insure that marine needs are met, promulgates regulations for drawbridges , and supervises Proposals for adapting modern airship technologies for military missions have mostly focused on exploiting the airships high flight endurance and low fuel requirement to conduct direct surveillance missions requiring high degrees of persistence over the areas to be observed.
While this mission has value, it constrains the airship in two regards. A more advanced utilization of airship technology would be to add the capability to deploy a separate set of surveillance equipment, thereby enabling indirect and distributed observation operations. This can be undertaken by installing surveillance equipment in a squadron of unmanned aircraft systems UAS that can be carried and operated remotely from the airship, and then return to the airship as a base of support. This could be accomplished by deploying UASs on an optionally manned 5 person crew airship.
The mission focus of the airship UAS carrier would be for support of distributed intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance ISR , close air support CAS , maritime patrol and interdiction, electronic warfare EW , persistent area dominance and missile defense. The logic for utilizing an airship carrier over a ground base to deploy UAS will be examined. Whether to be used as a stand-alone platform or in concert with conventional intelligence gathering techniques, the airship UAS carrier can provide the following benefits: A look at the past, a look at the possibilities.
A brief history of the flight by LTA including the development of the zeppelin is presented. Safety and economy are discussed along with power requirements and production techniques. The problem of ground handling facilities for very large airships are briefly mentioned. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions. Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans.
Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples. Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots.
Relative to rover-type wheeled robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows.
In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots. A blimp robot is attractive as an small flight robot and can float in the air by buoyancy and realize safe to the crash small flight with low energy and can movement for a long time compared with other flight robots with low energy and can movement for a long time compared with other flight robots. However, control of an airplane robot is difficult for the nonlinear characteristic exposed to inertia by the air flow in response to influence. Therefore, the applied research which carried out the maximum use of such in recent years a blimp robot's feature is prosperous.
In this paper, we realized development of blimp robot for research which can be used general-purpose by carrying out clue division of the blimp robot body at a unit, and constituting and building for research of blimp robot, and application development. On the other hand, by developing a general-purpose blimp robot research platform, improvement in the research efficiency of many researchers can be attained, and further, research start of blimp robot becomes easy and contributes to development of research.
We performed the experiments for the above-mentioned proof. Checked basic keeping position performance and that various orbital operation was possible. And the unit exchange ease of software unit was checked by the experiment which exchanges the control layer of software for learning control from PID control, and carries out comparison of operation. In order to check the exchange ease of hardware unit, the sensor was exchanged for the microphon from the camera, and control of operation was checked.
For the unit addition ease, the microphon which carries out sound detection with the picture detection with a camera was added, and control of operation was verified. The unit exchange was carried out for the check of a function addition and the topological map generation experiment by addition of an ultrasonic sensor was conducted. Developed blimp robot for research mounted the exchange ease.
Low Cost Airline Service Revolution. This study concentrates on new entry by airlines with low cost operating: Low cost strategies have been the most successful in competing: The purposes of th Ugural has a plate solution for equilateral Stresses in Plates and Shells. Los Angeles smog evolution observed by blimp. Observations of smog over the Los Angeles Basin LAB links high oxidant mixing ratios with poor visibility, sometimes blimp in a Lagrangian-like format.
The experiment on September 6, , demonstrated that a blimp could travel with the wind across the LAB, observing ozone O 3 and precursors, and particles of different size ranges. The results indicated a pollutant variation similar to that measured at a fixed site. The light scattering coefficient was found to be positively associated with the O 3 mixing ratio, whereas CN concentrations were negatively proportional to O 3 mixing ratio. The blimp experiment was supported with aircraft vertical profiles and ground-level observations from a mobile laboratory.
The blimp flight obtained combined gas and particle changes aloft that could not be obtained by ground or fixed-wing aircraft measurements alone. The experiment was partially successful in achieving a true Lagrangian characterization of smog chemistry in a constrained or defined "open" air mass. The Los Angeles experiment demonstrated the use of a blimp as a platform for measurement of. Low Cost Sensor Calibration Options. They vary widely in design and measure pollutants, ranging from ozone, particulate matter, to volatile organic compounds. Many of these senso The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form.
The objectives are to develop and validate technology, design tools and methodologies to enable the low cost commercial development and operational uses of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fueled liquid engines, low pressure booster engines and hybrid engines. The system permits the output of data in graphic as well as alphanumeric form and the input of data from the face of the TV using a light pen.
The integrated circuits required in the interface can be obtained from standard…. Blimp -1 controls plasma cell function through the regulation of immunoglobulin secretion and the unfolded protein response. Plasma cell differentiation requires silencing of B cell transcription, while it establishes antibody-secretory function and long-term survival.
The transcription factors Blimp -1 and IRF4 are essential for the generation of plasma cells; however, their function in mature plasma cells has remained elusive. We found that while IRF4 was essential for the survival of plasma cells, Blimp -1 was dispensable for this. Blimp deficient plasma cells retained their transcriptional identity but lost the ability to secrete antibody. The overlap in the functions of Blimp -1 and XBP-1 was restricted to that response, with Blimp -1 uniquely regulating activity of the kinase mTOR and the size of plasma cells.
Thus, Blimp -1 was required for the unique physiological ability of plasma cells that enables the secretion of protective antibody. Combinatorial regulation of a Blimp 1 Prdm1 enhancer in the mouse retina. The mouse retina comprises seven major cell types that exist in differing proportions. They are generated from multipotent progenitors in a stochastic manner, such that the relative frequency of any given type generated changes over time. The mechanisms determining the proportions of each cell type are only partially understood.
Photoreceptors and bipolar interneurons are derived from cells that express Otx2. Within this population, Blimp 1 Prdm1 helps set the balance between photoreceptors and bipolar cells by suppressing bipolar identity in most of the cells. To understand this, we investigated how Blimp 1 transcription is regulated. We identified several potential Blimp 1 retinal enhancer elements using DNase hypersensitivity sequencing. Only one of the elements recapitulated Blimp 1 spatial and temporal expression in cultured explant assays and within the retinas of transgenic mice.
Mutagenesis of this retinal Blimp 1 enhancer element revealed four discrete sequences that were each required for its activity. These included highly conserved Otx2 and ROR retinoic acid receptor related orphan receptor binding sites. The other required sequences do not appear to be controlled by Otx2 or ROR factors, increasing the complexity of the Blimp 1 gene regulatory network. Our results show that the intersection of three or more transcription factors is required to correctly regulate the spatial and temporal features of Blimp 1 enhancer expression.
This explains how Blimp 1 expression can diverge from Otx2 and set the balance between photoreceptor and bipolar fates. During this period we have demonstrated the utility of a low-cost satellite system that uses optical sensors and is capable of providing daily imaging globally. In addition to the use of the DMC to support disasters, the DMC has also been extensively used by the consortium members in support of national imaging needs and some residual system capacity has been provided to commercial customers. The product of this activity is a satellite design that strikes an appropriate balance between revisit frequency and resolution.
Hence, by comparison with other small satellite SAR concepts, the satellite described in this paper will provide broader area coverage at spatial resolutions in the region of 10 - 15m. Most significantly, perhaps, as a result of the specific cost targets imposed at the beginning of the design process, the satellite can provide this level of performance at a lower cost than other comparable space-based radar systems and significantly lower than larger, more performant, space-based radar systems.
Low cost omega navigation receiver. The development of a low cost Omega navigation receiver is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the completion and testing of a modular, multipurpose Omega receiver which utilizes a digital memory-aided, phase-locked loop to provide phase measurement data to a variety of applications interfaces. The functional units contained in the prototype device are described. The receiver is capable of receiving and storing phase measurements for up to eight Omega signals and computes two switch-selectable lines of position, displaying this navigation data in chart-recorded form.
New concepts for interplanetary balloons and blimps , particularly for Titan. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter. This report describes the development of a low cost , digital Micro Electro Mechanical System MEMS vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected.
Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device. Low cost Earth attitude sensor. A patent-pending, low-cost , moderate performance, Earth Attitude Sensor for LEO satellites is described in this paper. The paper deals with the system concepts, the technology adopted and the simulation results. The sensor comprises three or four narrow field of view mini telescopes pointed towards the Earth edge to detect and measure the variation of the off-nadir angle of the Earth-to-black sky transition using thermopile detectors suitably placed in the foci of the optical min telescopes.
The system's innovation consists in the opto-mechanical configuration adopted that is sturdy and has no moving parts being , thus, inherently reliable. In addition, with a view to reducing production costs, the sensor does without hi-rel and is instead mainly based on COTS parts suitably chosen. Besides it is flexible and can be adapted to perform attitude measurement onboard spacecraft flying in orbits other than LEO with a minimum of modifications to the basic design. Low cost balancing unit design. This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system.
This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells.
This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety cooling and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind.
The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion. Low Cost Mission to Deimos. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design.
Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility CEF two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Mars.
The developed Mars orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: It promises a low cost mission into a Mars orbit that allows close approaches to Deimos and Phobos. Periodontitis is a complex infectious disease that affects low-income individuals disproportionately. Periodontitis is associated with specific bacterial species and herpesviruses, and successful prevention and treatment of the disease is contingent upon effective control of these pathogens.
This article presents an efficacious, highly safe, minimally invasive, practical and low-cost periodontal therapy that involves professional and patient-administered mechanical therapy and antimicrobial agents. The major components are scaling for calculus removal, periodontal pocket irrigation with potent antiseptics, and treatment with systemic antibiotics for advanced disease.
Povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite have all the characteristics for becoming the first-choice antiseptics in the management of periodontal diseases. Both agents show excellent antibacterial and antiviral properties, are readily available throughout the world, have been safely used in periodontal therapy for decades, offer significant benefits for individuals with very limited financial resources, and are well accepted by most dental professionals and patients. Four per cent chlorhexidine applied with a toothbrush to the most posterior part to the tongue dorsum can markedly reduce or eliminate halitosis in most individuals.
Systemic antibiotics are used to treat periodontopathic bacteria that are not readily reached by topical therapy, such as pathogens within gingival tissue, within furcation defects, at the base of periodontal pockets, and on the tongue, tonsils and buccal mucosae. Scaling to remove dental calculus and the prudent. Low cost attitude control system scanwheel development. This report addresses the details of the versatile design resulting from this effort. Tradeoff analyses for each of the major components are included, as well as test data from an engineering prototype of the hardware.
Non-coordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp -1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny. Summary Blimp -1 is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain. While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp antibody secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages.
Additionally, cells in the shark bone marrow equivalent epigonal are Blimp Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal can be maintained for long periods without Blimp -1, but like in mammals, Blimp -1 is required for terminating the B cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen. New insights into Blimp -1 in T lymphocytes: B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 Blimp -1 serves as a master regulator of the development and function of antibody-producing B cells. Given that its function in T lymphocytes has been identified within the past decade, we review recent findings with emphasis on its role in coordinated control of gene expression during the development, differentiation, and function of T cells.
Blimp -1 is also required to induce cell elimination in the thymus and critically modulates peripheral T cell activation and proliferation. In addition, Blimp -1 promotes T helper Th 2 lineage commitment and limits Th1, Th17 and follicular helper T cell differentiation. Blimp -1 also functions as a gatekeeper of T cell activation and suppression to prevent or dampen autoimmune disease, antiviral responses and antitumor immunity.
In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of Blimp -1 in the complex regulation of gene networks that regulate the destiny and effector function of T cells and provide a Blimp dominated transcriptional framework for T lymphocyte homeostasis. The No Action discussion for a storm The top speed chosen to size the engines was 84 knots.
Engine choice is also critical since long duration missions, typical for airships , heavily This may serve as a starting point for a new airship. Thermoplastic rubberlike material produced at low cost. Thermoplastic rubberlike material is prepared by blending a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate with asphalt and a petroleum distillate. This low cost material is easily molded or extruded and is compatible with a variety of fillers. Taking the Hot Air Out of Balloons. Describes how a teacher can give their students the challenge of designing and building model balloons or blimps.
The project helps students learn the basics of balloon flight and what it really means to be " lighter than air. Noncoordinate expression of J-chain and Blimp -1 define nurse shark plasma cell populations during ontogeny. B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 Blimp -1 is the master regulator of plasma cell development, controlling genes such as those encoding J-chain and secretory Ig heavy chain.
However, some mammalian plasma cells do not express J-chain, and mammalian B1 cells secrete "natural" IgM antibodies without upregulating Blimp While these results have been controversial in mammalian systems, here we describe subsets of normally occurring Blimp -1 - antibody-secreting cells in nurse sharks, found in lymphoid tissues at all ontogenic stages.
Sharks naturally produce large amounts of both pentameric classically "19S" and monomeric classically "7S" IgM, the latter an indicator of adaptive immunity. Additionally, cells in the shark BM equivalent epigonal are Blimp -1 -. Our data suggest that, in sharks, 19S-secreting cells and other secreting memory B cells in the epigonal are maintained for long periods without Blimp -1, but like in mammals, Blimp -1 is required for terminating the B-cell program following an adaptive immune response in the spleen.
CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported in Toxoplasma encephalitis TE —susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp -1, a transcription factor.
Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp -1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a tamoxifen-dependent conditional Blimp -1 knockout mixed bone marrow chimera as well as an adoptive transfer approach, we show that CD4 T cell—intrinsic deletion of Blimp -1 reversed CD8 T cell dysfunction and resulted in improved pathogen control.
To the best of our knowledge, this is a novel finding, which demonstrates the role of Blimp -1 as a critical regulator of CD4 dysfunction and links it to the CD8 T cell dysfunctionality observed in infected mice. The critical role of CD4-intrinsic Blimp -1 expression in mediating CD4 and CD8 T cell exhaustion may provide a rational basis for designing novel therapeutic approaches. Construction of a low-cost luximeter.
This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost , making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab. It includes task reports on silicon material processing, large-area silicon sheet development, encapsulation materials testing and development, project engineering and operations, and manufacturing techniques, plus the steps taken to integrate these efforts.
Testing low cost anaerobic digestion AD systems. To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale FS digesters near the original dairy manure digester.
The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties. The potentiometer is retained as the feedback sensor and a microcontroller is responsible for controlling the position of the motor. As a mobile base it can remain operational despite political fallout that may render ground or ocean based UAS sites unavailable. These events are considered to trigger plasma cell differentiation; however, the mechanisms responsible currently remain unclear. Construction of a low-cost luximeter. A summary description of the preliminary design is given.
The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid Low-cost high purity production. Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.
Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization. Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel. Low cost silicon solar cell array. The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.
Strategies to fight low-cost rivals. Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments.
Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did.
Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp. In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay Florida , hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured.
These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments.
The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties. Regulation of the plasma cell transcription factor Blimp -1 gene by Bach2 and Bcl6. B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 Blimp -1 is a key regulator for plasma cell differentiation. Bach2 and Bcl6 were found to interact with each other in B cells.
Bcl6 is known to repress Prdm1 through a Bcl6 recognition element 1 in the intron 5, in which a putative, evolutionarily conserved MARE was identified. Both repressed the expression of a reporter gene containing the intron 5 region depending on the presence of the respective binding sites in pre-B cells. Co-expression of Bach2 and Bcl6 resulted in further repression of the reporter plasmid. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed MafK to bind to the intron MARE in various B cell lines, thus suggesting that it binds as a heterodimer with Bach2.
Therefore, the interaction between Bach2 and Bcl6 might be crucial for the proper repression of Prdm1 in B cells. Low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove.
The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.
Low-cost CWDM transmitter package.
The package utilizes precision molded optics to multiplex beams from four grating-outcoupled surface-emitting GSE lasers into a single beam suitable for coupling into multimode fiber. This paper summarizes the optical and opto-mechanical design, fabrication and assembly of prototypes, and optical, thermal and electrical measurement results of the prototypes. This unique design enables multiplexing of wavelengths without the use of filters, waveguides, couplers and fiber splicing. Commercial fabrication and alignment technology is used to manufacture the package, resulting in a more robust, reliable and low-cost transmitter.
The transmitter package is enabled by the unique characteristics of the long-wavelength GSE laser. Low cost paths to binary optics. Application of binary optics has been limited to a few major laboratories because of the limited availability of fabrication facilities such as e-beam machines and the lack of standardized design software. Foster-Miller has attempted to identify low cost approaches to medium-resolution binary optics using readily available computer and fabrication tools, primarily for the use of students and experimenters in optical computing.
An early version of our system, MacBEEP, made use of an optimized laser film recorder from the commercial typesetting industry with 10 micron resolution. This report is an update on our current efforts to design and build a second generation MacBEEP, which aims at 1 micron resolution and multiple phase levels. Trails included a low cost scanning electron microscope in microlithography mode, and alternative laser inscribers or photomask generators. Our current software approach is based on Mathematica and PostScript compatibility.
Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is Low Cost Space Experiments. Report Corporate Author or Publisher: Dec 06, Pages: Low-Cost Space Hardware and Software. RocketU will continue to provide low-cost innovations even with continuous cuts to the budget. Ultra- low-cost clinical pulse oximetry. An ultra- low-cost pulse oximeter is presented that interfaces a conventional clinical finger sensor with a mobile phone through the headset jack audio interface. All signal processing is performed using the audio subsystem of the phone.
In a preliminary volunteer study in a hypoxia chamber, we compared the oxygen saturation obtained with the audio pulse oximeter against a commercially available and FDA approved reference pulse oximeter Nonin Xpod. Good agreement was found between the outputs of the two devices. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats. This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up.
Two gear stages are scope of this work: Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water. We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.
Low cost miniature data collection platform. The development of the RF elements of a telecommunications package involved detailed study and analysis of concepts and techniques followed by laboratory testing and evaluation of designs. The design goals for a complete telecommunications package excluding antenna were a total weight of grams, in a total volume of cu cm with a capability of unattended operation for a period of six months. Of utmost importance is extremely low cost when produced in lots of 10, Early in the program it became apparent that a single Miniature Data Collection Platform would not satisfy all users.
A single high efficiency system would not satisfy a user who had available a large battery capacity but required a low cost system. Conversely, the low cost system would not satisfy the end user who had a very limited battery capacity. A system design to satisfy these varied requirements was implemented by designing several versions of the system building blocks and then constructing three systems from these building blocks.
A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost , miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations.
Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis to the prime payload , and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft.
These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed. A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites.
Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure.
During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle UAV components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.
Objective Introduce the low-cost and easy to purchase simulator without biological material so that any institution may promote extensive cardiovascular surgery training both in a hospital setting and at home without large budgets. Methods A transparent plastic box is placed in a wooden frame, which is held by the edges using elastic bands, with the bottom turned upwards, where an oval opening is made, "simulating" a thoracotomy.
For basic exercises in the aorta, the model presented by our service in the Brazilian Congress of Cardiovascular Surgery: Simulators for the training of valve replacement and valvoplasty, atrial septal defect repair and aortic diseases were added. These simulators are based on sewage pipes obtained in construction material stores and the silicone trays and ethyl vinyl acetate tissue were obtained in utility stores, all of them at a very low cost. Results The models were manufactured using inert materials easily found in regular stores and do not present contamination risk.
They may be used in any environment and maybe stored without any difficulties. This training enabled young surgeons to familiarize and train different surgical techniques, including procedures for aortic diseases. In a subjective assessment, these surgeons reported that the training period led to improved surgical techniques in the surgical field. Conclusion The model described in this protocol is effective and low-cost when compared to existing simulators, enabling a large array of cardiovascular surgery training.
In a broadband TWT , this l eads to power holes in the f The 1-Shaped helix was fi rst descri bed by L.
Low cost damage tolerant composite fabrication. The resin transfer molding RTM process applied to composite aircraft parts offers the potential for using low cost resin systems with dry graphite fabrics that can be significantly less expensive than prepreg tape fabricated components. Stitched graphite fabric composites have demonstrated compression after impact failure performance that equals or exceeds that of thermoplastic or tough thermoset matrix composites.
This paper reviews methods developed to fabricate complex shape composite parts using stitched graphite fabrics to increase damage tolerance with RTM processes to reduce fabrication cost. A low cost LST pointing control system. Vigorous efforts to reduce costs, coupled with changes in LST guidelines, took place in the Fall of The major design changes are summarized as: Preliminary analysis indicates the Low Cost LST concept can meet the newly defined requirements and results in a significantly reduced development cost.
Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Individual presentations cover the following topics: A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.
The LSSA Project is assigned responsibility for advancing silicon solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.
The Project is assigned responsibility for advancing solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. The low cost , upper stage-class propulsion LCUSP element will develop a high strength copper alloy additive manufacturing AM process as well as critical components for an upper stage-class propulsion system that will be demonstrated with testing.
As manufacturing technologies have matured, it now appears possible to build all the major components and subsystems of an upper stage-class rocket engine for substantially less money and much faster than traditionally done. However, several enabling technologies must be developed before that can happen. This activity will address these technologies and demonstrate the concept by designing, manufacturing, and testing the critical components of a rocket engine. The processes developed and materials' property data will be transitioned to industry upon completion of the activity.
Technologies to enable the concept are AM copper alloy process development, AM post-processing finishing to minimize surface roughness, AM material deposition on existing copper alloy substrate, and materials characterization. Low-cost solar array structure development. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches.
The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included. Stable, low cost SAW microwave transmitter. The design flexibility and application possibilities of surface acoustic wave SAW technology is discussed.
When FM modulation is required, the SAW delay line can provide a lower oscillator Q, which represents the optimum tradeoff between frequency stability and FM modulability. The capabilities of SAW oscillators are reviewed, and two example transmitters are presented. One transmitter operates at MHz and provides an AM-modulated signal. The second operates at the to MHz range and provides an FM-modulated output at one of six frequencies. SAW transmitters are suitable for applications where moderately high stability and low cost are key factors. With direct generation of signals at microwave frequencies and the flexibility of SAW oscillator design, a wide range of performance characteristics can be achieved.
Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters. A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed.
The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable in. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. A complete low cost radon detection system. Monitoring the Rn activity through the km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system a radon monitor.
In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. NASA is interested in a low-cost launch vehicle, code named Magnum, to place heavy payloads into low earth orbit for missions such as a manned mission to Mars, a Next Generation Space Telescope, a lunar-based telescope, the Air Force's proposed space based laser, and large commercial satellites.
Seventeen concepts were qualitatively evaluated to select four concepts for more in-depth study. The four structural concepts selected were: It was found that unitized composite structures offer significant cost and weight benefits to MLV structures. The limited study of application to LFBB structures indicated lower, but still significant benefits.
Current Government and Boeing programs which address elements of the development of the technologies identified are underway. SIRTF will acquire both imaging and spectral data using large infrared detector arrays from 3. The primary science objectives are 1 search for and study of brown dwarfs and super planets, 2 discovery and study of protoplanetary debris disks, 3 study of ultraluminous galaxies and active galactic nuclei, and 4 study of the early Universe.
Driven by the limited cryogenic lifetime of 2. SIRTF is designing an architecture for an operations system that will be shared between science and flight operations. Crucial to this effort is the philosophy of an integrated science and engineering plan, co-location, cross-training of teams and common planning tools. The common tool set will enable the automatic generation of an integrated and conflict free planned schedule accommodating 20 observations and engineering activities a year.
The shared tool set will help generate standard observations , sometimes non-standard engineering activities and manage the ground and flight resources and constraints appropriately. The ground software will allow the development from the ground of robust event driven sequences. Flexibility will be provided to incorporate newly discovered science opportunities or health issues late in the process and via quick links.
This shared science and flight operations process if used from observation selection through sequence and command generation, will provide a low-cost operations system. B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 Blimp 1 is a transcriptional repressor that regulates cell growth and differentiation in multiple tissues, including skin. Although in the epidermis Blimp 1 is important for keratinocyte and sebocyte differentiation, its role in dermal fibroblasts is unclear.
Test Standards for Lighter-Than-Air (Balloon, Airship), Plus free US when you sample this book from mobile site on bosol.com The emphasis in the U.S. is on VTOL airships capable of heavy lift, and on long Commercial Pilot Practical Test Standards for Lighter-Than-Air Balloon, Airship .. These cells were free to expand and contract, thereby allowing for pressure and . Low-cost sensors ($1 D) represent a unique class of air monitoring.
Blimp 1 ablation in E Overall, our study reveals the functional role of Blimp 1 in promoting the dermal papilla inductive signaling cascade that initiates HF growth. Published by Elsevier Inc. Prototype of a low cost multiparameter probe. We present a design and prototype for a low cost Performance of several low-cost accelerometers. Several similar efforts are in development at other institutions.
Low cost , abundant thermoelectrics. Lead and sulphur are the most abundant and low cost materials on the earth's crust, lead chalcogenide S, Se and Te materials have got best applications in thermoelectric power generations.
Among the chalcogenides, selenium and tellurium are costlier and are more toxic material than sulphur. In the present work, the lead sulphide PbS and SrxPb 1-x S composite materials were synthesized and investigated. It is observed that there is reduction in the thermal conductivity of PbS alloy on addition of Sr that is mainly attributed to the scattering centres of Sr in the PbS matrix also the presence of the Sr also plays a role in the refinement of the PbS matrix. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation.
One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations.
It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes.
These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics. What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success.
Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight?