Jinnah had originally been dubious about the practicability of Pakistan, an idea that the poet and philosopher Muhammad Iqbal had propounded to the Muslim League conference of , but before long he became convinced that a Muslim homeland on the Indian subcontinent was the only way of safeguarding Muslim interests and the Muslim way of life. Thus, the birth of Pakistan and Partition.
He is helped to his car by his physician Dr Sushila Nayyar. B G Kher, the Bombay Premier, salutes the flag. Indians, free at last from the yoke of British rule, celebrate Independence in Calcutta. Nehru delivers his Tryst with Destiny speech, one of the greatest speeches of the 20th century.
One of the 30 special trains leaving New Delhi station which took Pakistan government staff to Karachi. Muslim League guards stand to attention in honour of the departure. The burned-out Hall Bazaar shopping street after communal riots in Amritsar during Partition. Fighting took place between the city's Muslim population around 50 per cent , anxious for Amritsar to be incorporated into Pakistan, and the other, Sikh and Hindu, half of the inhabitants, who supported incorporation with India.
NewsApp Free Read news as it happens Available on. Without having any radical ideas, moderates wanted the removal of injustice done to Indians by the British bureaucrats and demanded Certain reforms in the administrative, constitutional and economic spheres. The moderates wanted protection of the civil rights of Indians like freedom of speech, freedom of press, right to organize public meetings and processions.
They asked for the separation of judiciary from the executive and removal of the Vernacular Press Act. The moderates urged the government to remove certain administrative abuses and to adopt various welfare schemes. They demanded for the appointment of a royal commission to examine the Indian administration. The Congress, under the leadership of moderates asked the government to develop agricultural banks, improve police system, reduce military expenditure, provide facilities for irrigation, health and sanitation, to appoint more and more Indians in higher posts etc.
They demanded better educational systems with opening up of technical and professional colleges and trial by jury. They asked for the removal of Arms Act passed during the viceroyalty of Lord Lytton. Instead of demanding complete independence for India, the moderates only asked for larger number of elected representatives in central and provincial legislatures. With such representation, Indians would get the opportunity to be involved with the functioning of democratic government. While the demands of the moderates were liberal in respect of administrative and constitutional reforms, these were revolutionary in the economic sphere.
The worst result of the British rule was the extreme poverty of India. To protect the Indian economy, the moderates asked the government to stop draining off wealth from India, reduce the land revenue, abolish- salt tax, promote modern industries and to protect trade by imposing import and export duties. All these demands were presented in prayer like language, leaving the final decision to the mercy of the British Crown. However, the nature of these demands shows how the Indian National Congress functioned as the spokesman of each and every section of the people. The growing popularity of the Congress appeared as a threat to British imperialism.
So the British government took some measures to obstruct the functioning of the National Congress. Though the moderates failed to bring any instant gain, yet they have exposed the real motive of the British economic imperialism. They were able to generate the spirit of national consciousness among the people. They provided political education and indirectly raised a strong public opinion against the British rule.
However, they never protested against the government and limited their activities within the existing laws of British India. There was a rise of extremism or militant nationalism within the National Congress extending from to A young group realized the futility of the ideology and techniques of the moderates. Instead of going out of the Congress, they wanted to capture it from within. Several factors contributed to the growth of extremism in the freedom struggle of India.
Gradually the people of India and their leaders realized the true nature of the British rule. They became convinced that the British would not grant self-government to them.
Dissatisfaction over the British administration was primarily responsible for the growth of militant nationalism. A considerable section of the people within the Congress was not satisfied with the policies of the Congress which was dominated primarily by the moderates. They criticized their techniques of prayer and petition as political mendicancy. They were convinced that no tangible goal would be realized by the moderates.
The nineteenth century movement of renaissance and reformation helped in reviving the faith of Indians in their culture. These organisations revived the glory of Indian Culture and generated a sense of self-confidence in the mind of Indians. Forgetting the inferiority complex, the Indian mass came forward to face the challenge of the western culture and British administration. The racial arrogance and disrespectful behaviour of the Britishers towards the Indians, greatly injured their sentiments. Aggrieved Indians often failed to get justice against their oppression.
Even the Anglo-Indian newspapers supported the stand of the Englishmen. Such arrogance and rough behaviour of Britishers, partially helped the rise of extremism.
Under the British rule, the economic interest of all sections of Indians was hampered. The cultivators suffered due to the revenue policy of the government. The British Government served the interests of the British traders more than the Indian traders. The educated Indians failed to get employment as per their qualifications. Industries could not grow in India due to the exploitative policy of the government.
All sections of Indians gradually lost their faith in the British sense of justice. Moreover, India suffered from a severe famine in And then, the plague broke out in Bombay Presidency. The steps taken by the government to provide relief was inadequate and could not satisfy the people. Out of the economic discontent, militant nationalism emerged in India.
Certain international events of that time had great bearing on the growth of extremism.
The defeat of Italy by Abyssinia in , defeat of Russia by Japan in , the course of national movements in Egypt, Persia and Turkey, demand of Ireland for self-government etc. All these international factors and forces encouraged extremism in India. The policies of different British Viceroys, particularly of Lord Curzon created widespread discontent among the Indians.
He tried to attack the university autonomy with his Indian Universities Act.
He also destroyed the system of local self government by passing the Calcutta Corporation Act and attempted to divide Hindu and Muslim by the partition of Bengal. Though the government tried to justify its decision of partition on the ground of administrative convenience, yet the real aim was how to weaken the growing Indian nationalism. At that time Bengal had become the central point of Indian nationalism. So the partition seriously provoked the sentiments of the people and protest movements were organised throughout India.